How Much More Will the Blood of Christ?

Bible, Christianity, Hebrews

“For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a young cow sprinkled on those who are defiled consecrated them and provided ritual purity, how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our consciences from dead works to worship the living God.”  Hebrews 9:13-14

Through chapters eight and nine of Hebrews, we have seen the author discuss the old and new covenants. Most of this discussion has come by contrasting the two covenants–by focusing on the things that the old covenant could not do and alluding to the new covenant correcting these shortcomings. With all of its regulations and rituals, the old covenant was not designed to give us salvation. Instead, the old covenant pointed us to the God who, out of grace and mercy, gives us salvation.

Beginning in Hebrews 9:11, the author tells us how the new covenant was enacted and how it fixes us. We are told very emphatically that everything has changed with Christ’s arrival, and that His coming to the world signaled the arrival of the new covenant. We see that Christ does four things: He came, He passed through the veil into the true tabernacle, He entered the Most Holy Place, and He secured eternal redemption. Christ enacted this new covenant by passing through the true heavenly tabernacle and entering directly into God’s presence in heaven. Christ’s actions–passing through the tabernacle, entering into the Most Holy Place–are the same actions performed by the high priest on the Day of Atonement. However, Christ’s actions are more significant and more powerful. The priests work in the earthly tabernacle, but Christ works in the real tabernacle in heaven. Not only that, but Christ’s work of atonement for us and the purchasing of our salvation is eternal. The author says that Christ’s actions are “once and for all,” meaning that they never need to be renewed or repeated. The same could not be said for the atonement made by the high priests since they had to repeat the same ceremony year after year. 

The covenant made by Christ is eternal, and His sacrifices cleanse us of our sins. He does for us what the old covenant never could–He fixes the problem of our sinful nature. The cleansing rituals of the old covenant only gave us external relief, but they could not fix our hearts. Through the Holy Spirit, Christ purges us of our sins, and He declares us clean. He gives us new hearts and new natures that seek Him instead of seeking sin. Christ makes us alive and able to worship the living God, and Christ frees us from the dead works and rituals of the old covenant. 

Christ does for us what nothing else could; He frees us from our sins and our sinful natures. Through Him, we are enabled to live as the people of God.  Being washed in His blood and being transformed by Him requires our lives to reflect this change.  If our lives do not reflect the transformation we have experienced, we must repent, and we must allow Him to free us from the sins to which we so foolishly cling.

Artwork: “Crucifixion,” Graham Sutherland OM, 1946

Blueprint of a Better Covenant.

Bible, Christianity, Hebrews

“Now the point in what we are saying is this: we have such a high priest, one who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, a minister in the holy places, in the true tent that the Lord set up, not man.” Hebrews‬ ‭8:1-2‬ ‭

In Hebrews 8, we see the author’s focus shift toward discussing the new covenant that Christ enacted for us. The author tells us that Christ is qualified to be the high priest of this new covenant because He serves in the true tabernacle in heaven, and not in the earthly tabernacle which is only a “sketch and a shadow” of its heavenly counterpart. The earthly tabernacle serves only to give us a glimpse of what we will see when we are in God’s presence in heaven.

In this same fashion, God’s old covenant with Israel is but a sketch, or a blueprint, of the covenant that He would make with us through Christ. To support this position, the author quotes Jeremiah 31, a passage in which God explains the new covenant’s coming. But before we can understand the new covenant, we must first understand the old covenant that preceded it.

After God freed Israel from slavery in Egypt, He led them to Mt. Sinai. At Sinai, God gave Israel the Law, and He told them that He had called them to be His people and that He would be their God. Israel would show their commitment to keeping the covenant by keeping God’s commandments. But this proved to be a problem, for Israel could never live up to these terms. They were never able to live according to God’s standard. As soon as they settled in the Promised Land, there arose a generation who did not know the Lord. From there, the situation only became worse. With each generation, Israel strayed further and further from the Lord. By the prophet Jeremiah’s time, God had decided it was time to make a new covenant.

In Jeremiah 31, the passage that the author of Hebrews quotes from, God tells Jeremiah that this new covenant would not be like the previous one, it would be better. God ensured that the new covenant would be better by vowing to fix the old covenant’s major flaw—us. Israel could never keep the law and keep the covenant because of their fallen nature. They were sinful beings, just the same as we are today. They couldn’t keep the law because their sinful nature made them incapable of doing so.

But God would do something different in the new covenant; He would change us. To ensure the success of the new covenant, God would change our human nature. He would give us new hearts upon which He has written His law. He would fill us with His spirit, and He would make us capable of living up to His standard and being His people. When God brings us to Himself through Christ, He makes us new creatures who seek only Him.

Living as the people of God requires us to be incredibly honest about what is in our hearts. We cannot be God’s people if we are still holding on to things from our old lives and from our old, sinful hearts. We must thoroughly examine our hearts, and if we see that we are holding on to sin, we must humbly go before God and ask for His forgiveness. We must pray that He remove that sin from us, and we must ask that He give us the strength we need to live as He calls us to live.

The Priest-King.

Bible, Christianity, Hebrews

“For this Melchizedek—

King of Salem, priest of the Most High God,
who met Abraham and blessed him
as he returned from defeating the kings,
and Abraham gave him a tenth of everything;
first, his name means king of righteousness,
then also, king of Salem,
meaning king of peace;
without father, mother, or genealogy,
having neither beginning of days nor end of life,
but resembling the Son of God—

remains a priest forever.” Hebrews 7:1-3

In Hebrews 7, the author continues the discussion about Christ being our high priest. To help make this case, the author points to the Old Testament figure Melchizedek. As the author of Hebrews wisely observes, Melchizedek allows us to see how the Messiah can be both a king and a priest, without coming from the priestly family of Levi and Aaron.


Melchizedek is a very mysterious figure. He only appears in two verses in the Book of Genesis (14:18-20). In these two verses, we are told several things about Melchizedek. We are told that he is the King of Salem, the priest of the Most High God, and he blesses Abraham. He presents Abraham with bread and wine. Though this might all seem like trivial information, the author of Hebrews draws from this information and shows us how these things point us toward Jesus.


The author of Hebrews spends a lot of time talking about Melchizedek’s name and his position as the King of Salem. His name, Melchizedek, means “King of Righteousness,” which gives us a vital clue about his character. Along with this, we know that Melchizedek ruled over a significant city–Salem, which would later be renamed Jerusalem. We know Jerusalem is important because it is where God would locate His temple; it would be where God chose to dwell among His people. In Genesis, before the temple was constructed, and before Israel was created, we see that Melchizedek, the King of Righteousness, is the ruler of this holy city. We are also reminded that the name “Salem” means “peace,” which adds another layer to this interesting figure. Not only is Melchizedek the King of Righteousness and the King of Salem, but he is also the King of Peace. His titles, and his actions of laying out bread and wine, foreshadow an even greater king, Jesus–the King of Kings–and the work that He would do in Jerusalem.


As amazing as all of this already is, the author of Hebrews points our attention to something else. We are reminded that Melchizedek is not only a king, but he is a priest. He belongs to a priesthood that predates Levi and Aaron, which means Melchizedek’s priesthood is not confined to a particular family. God appointed Melchizedek to this priesthood, and this is the priesthood that God would also appoint Jesus to. This allows Jesus to be, like Melchizedek, both a priest and a king. Jesus comes from the royal family of Judah and David, and He was appointed by God to be in the priestly order of Melchizedek (Psalm 110:4).


Though he only appears very briefly in the Bible, Melchizedek helps us better understand how God mapped out His plan of salvation down to the smallest detail. Melchizedek shows us how Christ can be the Messiah who is both king and priest. Since Christ is both priest and king, he can perform the duties of both offices. He can offer the sacrifice of atonement to save us from our sins, and He can also rule over us and direct us in how we should live. Christ is worthy to save us, and He is worthy to rule over us, and because of this, we must live worthy of the call He has placed upon us.

Artwork: Icon of Abraham meeting Melchizedek

The Cost of Unbelief.

Christianity, Hebrews, Religion

“Take care, brothers, lest there be in any of you an evil, unbelieving heart, leading you to fall away from the living God.”
‭‭Hebrews‬ ‭3:12‬ ‭

In Hebrews 3:1-6, we read how the author of Hebrews argued for Jesus’ superiority to Moses. Beginning in verse 7, however, we see a shift in the author’s focus. The author takes a detour from discussing Israel’s greatest leader, Moses, and instead discusses Israel’s greatest failure. This shift is intentional. The author uses the cautionary tale of Israel’s sin in the wilderness to highlight the importance of holding fast to our belief in Christ.

Once again, we see the author of Hebrews dig deeply into the Old Testament to present scripture to support the importance of belief. In verses 7-11, the author quotes from Psalm 95. This particular psalm is a re-telling of the story of Israel’s rebellion and refusal to enter the Promised Land. We find this story first presented in Numbers 14. To understand the message of Psalm 95, we must understand the events of Numbers 14. So let’s take a moment to discuss those events.

In Numbers 14, we find the Israelites and Moses on the border of the Promised Land. They had come through the Exodus. They spent a year at Sinai. Now, they are on the threshold of entering into the land that God reserved for them. Moses sent twelve spies into the land to check it out, and the spies returned to Moses after forty days. Ten of the spies did not think that Israel could take the land. They did not believe that God would keep His promise to give them the land, even though He had already repeatedly told Israel that He would. These ten evil spies convinced the rest of Israel not to go into the Promised Land, and Israel rebelled against God and Moses. Israel rebelled and fell into unbelief, and they fell away from God. The results of this rebellion were disastrous for Israel. They would not be allowed to go into the Promised Land. They would have to wander in the desert for 40 years until the rebellious generation died. This is the story we see re-told in Psalm 95, and this is the story that the author of Hebrews uses to drive home the importance of belief.

The author introduces the quote from Psalm 95 in an interesting way, saying that the psalm’s words are the words of the Holy Spirit. The author of Hebrews says that the Holy Spirit is currently speaking these words today through the Scriptures. When we read the Bible, we hear God’s Spirit speaking to us. What is it that the Spirit is saying to us in Psalm 95? It is an urgent plea to learn from the tragic mistake of Israel’s rebellion and to not fall into the same trap. The Spirit tells us to listen to God’s voice today and not to harden our hearts as Israel did. 

In verse 12, the author adds another plea, one that calls upon us not to beware of having evil hearts. The word used there for “evil” can mean “bad” or “wicked,” but it can also mean “full of toil, labor, or annoyance.” We learn from this that the first step in falling into unbelief and rebelling against God is having a heart that is full of ingratitude. To combat developing such evil hearts, the author calls upon believers to encourage and exhort one another every day. The Greek word the author uses is parakaleo, which means “to encourage or admonish.” We are to encourage and, if need be, admonish our brothers and sisters every day so that they might not develop evil hearts. We are to keep each other focused upon God and not upon the toil and strife of this world.

The author presents the story of Israel’s rebellion against God to highlight to us the importance of holding on to our belief in Christ. Israel broke their covenant agreement with God and forfeited their right to enter the Promised Land as the result of that rebellion. If their rebellion against God and Moses was so severe, how much more would the punishment be for those who rebel against the one who is greater than Moses–Christ? If they lost their right to enter the Promised Land, what might we lose if we fall away into unbelief? 

We must learn from this cautionary tale, and we must hold tightly to the belief that we have placed in Christ. We cannot be distracted by the toil of this world, nor can we become ungrateful. We must focus on the spiritual health of our hearts, and we must be committed to encouraging our brothers and sisters to do the same thing. Though we are in the wilderness today, the Promised Land is just before us. We must be wholly devoted to following Christ so that we might enter into that special place that He has prepared for us.

Artwork: “Wanderer in the storm,” by Julius von Leypold, 1835

Superior to the Angels

Christianity, Hebrews

“After making purification for sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high. So He became higher in rank than the angels, just as the name He inherited is superior to theirs.” Hebrews 1:3-4

The author of Hebrews spends the majority of chapter one explaining how Christ is superior to the angels. This may seem like an unusual argument for the author to have to make; we have no issues today understanding that Jesus is superior to all the beings in heaven. We know that Christ is the Creator and that the angels are part of His creation. As such, it is easy for us to see that Christ is superior.

The early Jewish believers, however, did not have the benefit of 2,000 years of Christian theology and thinking to aid them, as we do today. In fact, they were trying to make sense of thousands of years of their own religious tradition and teachings in light of the Gospel and God’s new revelation through Jesus. The early believers were the ones who were having to figure out Christian theology as they went along. The author of Hebrews wrote this letter, in part, to help the early believers do just that.

The claim that Jesus was superior to the angels was a necessary claim for the author to make. There had long been a belief within Judaism that the angels were the peak of God’s creation. It was believed that angels were superior to humanity because the angels resided in Heaven with God and served Him. Due to this close proximity to God, it was thought that the angels had to be better than humans; they would not be allowed so close to God if they were not. There was another reason for this lofty view of angels. Throughout the Bible, especially the Old Testament, there are numerous episodes in which God communicated messages to certain men and women, and these messages were communicated through angels. Time and time again, God would send an angel to tell people a message that God needed them to hear. This led, over time, people to think that angles must be important–for if they weren’t, then why would God use them to do such important work?

This is the mindset that the author of Hebrews was writing to correct. The author needed the Jewish believers in Christ to understand that Christ is God. Jesus is not less than God, He is not inferior to God, but that He is God. Jesus was the incarnation of God; He was God in the form of a man. The author also needed these believers to understand that when Christ became a man, He did not lose any of His divinity. Jesus was not 50% man, and 50% God. In taking on flesh, Christ did not put away His power and authority. As hard as it is for us to comprehend, Christ was both fully man and fully God. The author of Hebrews wanted the Hebrew Christians to understand this so that they could see that Jesus is the God that the angels serve and worship. Once they grasped that, they would realize that Christ is superior to the angels.

After explaining how Christ is superior to the angels, the author of Hebrews then gives a word of warning in chapter 2:1-4. The author warns the readers to pay closer attention to the words that Christ is speaking to us now than had bee paid to the previous messages from God. The message being spoken to us now is superior to the old messages, and because of that, the believers had to be all the more diligent in listening and obeying it. If the message was ignored, they would “drift away” from this important message of salvation and would float away into judgment.

Though the tradition of believing the angels were superior to Christ may seem silly to us today, it was a real issue that had to be addressed and corrected. The core issue was that the Hebrew believers were coming from a tradition that put an unnecessary focus on the angels. They were focusing on beings who were not meant to be focused upon. After all, the word “angel” comes from the Greek word angelos, which simply means “messenger,” and that is all that the angels are: they are God’s messengers. They are not beings that should be revered or worshipped. 

The mistake that the Hebrew believers were making was that they were paying more attention to the messengers than to the One who sent the messengers. This is an issue we still wrestle with today. While we might understand who Christ is, we often make the same mistake of focusing more on the messengers that are sent to us than on Christ. We have our preferred theological views and systems and approaches, and we tend to focus only upon making Scripture fit our understanding of what it should say. Often we prefer to listen to how other individuals interpret the Bible instead of allowing the Biblical texts to speak for themselves. 

This highlights the danger that the author of Hebrews hinted at.  We must pay close attention to what Christ says to us and not only listen to what people tell us He said. If we only listen to the interpretations of other people, we run the genuine risk of drifting away wherever the currents of bad teaching carry us. We must, instead, focus upon Christ and listen diligently and intently to what He says to us. We must pay close attention to Him and not allow other voices to distract us. We must listen to the message that is sent to us by Him, and not focus on the messengers who brought it to us.

Artwork: Detail of an Angel by Giotto, c. 1300

The Lord is Near!

Christianity, Philippians, Religion

Philippians 4 is, without a doubt, one of Paul’s most famous pieces of writing. Any Christian worth their salt knows Philippians 4:13, “I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me,” by heart. Chapter 4 is also where we find Paul’s exhortation to “rejoice in the Lord always, and again I say rejoice!” (Phil. 4:4). Though these verses are sure to be included in any list of Paul’s “greatest hits,” they are not the only pearls of wisdom that can be found in this chapter. 

 Among the more overlooked verses of Philippians 4, we find verses 5 and 6, “Let everyone see your gentleness. The Lord is near!  Do not be anxious about anything. Instead, in every situation, through prayer and petition with thanksgiving, tell your requests to God.” In these two verses, Paul gives some of the most significant theological and practical advice for Christian living. We can break his advice into three parts:

 1-Treat everyone gently.

 2- Don’t be scared, for Christ is with us.

 3- Don’t stop praying.

Let’s take a more in-depth look at each of these.

  1-Treat everyone gently. The word that Paul uses in verse 5 can be translated as “fairness,” “mildness,” or “gentleness.“ When he calls upon the Philippians to let everyone “see their gentleness,” he is calling on them to treat people gently and mildly. Followers of Christ are not to show unfair treatment to others, nor are we to treat anyone in a harsh or unkind manner. We are called, as Paul reminded us, to show meekness, mildness, and gentleness. These characteristics should come naturally to believers because they are the same traits Christ demonstrated to those whom he encountered. As we seek to be more Christlike, we should strive to show more gentleness and fairness to everyone we meet.

 2- Don’t be scared, for Christ is with us. Are there any more comforting words written in all of Scripture? Let’s take a moment and review everything Paul has told us about Christ in this epistle. In Philippians 2, Paul writes of Christ’s humility. He said that Christ’s entire life was a demonstration in humble living. In chapter 3, Paul wrote of Christ’s sovereignty over all everything in heaven and earth. Here in chapter 4, however, Paul quickly reminds us that Christ is not distant from us; He is not far removed from us. Paul tells us that the opposite is true that Christ is close to us! Though He has ascended back up to the Father, Christ is very much still near to us. He is still Immanuel, “God with us.” He is near to us, and He is seeing us through every situation, every trial, every tribulation that we face. When we realize that Christ is with us, we recognize that we have nothing to fear. There is no fear in sickness, no fear in plague, no fear in death. Since Christ is with us, and since He is giving us the strength to endure every trial, we have nothing to fear at all.

 3- Don’t stop praying. Paul called upon the Philippians to continuously take their prayers, petitions, and requests to God with thanksgiving. In every situation, we are to be committed to prayer. God knows all of our needs, and He will meet them. He also wants us to demonstrate that we trust in His provision for our lives through prayer. Praying to God to meet our needs is a demonstration of humility on our part. It shows that we are no longer trying to control things ourselves and that we are trusting in God alone to meet our needs. 

 Paul’s words in chapter 4 are as practical as they are reassuring and beautiful. In the days ahead, take time to reflect upon them. Find your hope and comfort in the fact that Christ is near to us. Whatever might be going on in your life, you are not alone. The Lord Himself is with you. Though things might be tough and painful, He is with you, and He is in control. He is with you just as He was with Noah during the flood. He is with you just as He was with Joseph in prison. He is with you just as He was with Israel in the wilderness. He is with you just as He was with Jonah in the belly of the fish. He is with you just as He was with Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego in the fiery furnace.

He is with you just as He was with Daniel in the lion’s den. He is with you just as He was with Paul in prison. He promised never to leave us nor forsake us. So trust His promise, and do not be afraid.

Artwork, “The Lord is Near,” from “Devotions Sketchbook,” by Aaron Zenz, 2013. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/161988917824843128/

Restore.

1 Peter, Christianity, Religion

“And, after you have suffered for a little while, the God of all grace who called you to his eternal glory in Christ will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you.” 1 Peter 5:10

Peter’s first epistle is often classified with the ‘general epistles,’ meaning that it contains information that is general, or broad, in scope. The epistles in this category focus on addressing many big-picture themes, such as faith, hope, works, love. They differ somewhat from Paul’s letters that often are directed to a single congregation or individual and often focus on thoroughly explaining a single topic in great detail. Both sets of epistles, the general and those by Paul, provide something of a ‘how-to’ manual for living the Christian life. It is in the epistles that we see the theology and doctrine of the gospels unpacked and explained and applied to everyday life.

While 1 Peter is general in scope, there was still a specific context in which it was written. This letter was addressed to the exiled believers living in Asia Minor. These Gentile followers of Christ were living in their homeland, but Peter addresses them as exiles. This theme is one that is repeated throughout 1 Peter; the Apostle wants his fellow believers to understand that this world is not their home. As followers of Christ, believers are living in this world in a spiritual exile. This “exile” is made real to the believers of Asia Minor in the form of persecution that they experienced because of their faith in Christ.

Throughout the letter, Peter discusses how these believers are to respond to this persecution. He implores them to continue being law-abiding citizens, to look out for one another, to love each other, and to seek to do good to those who are persecuting them. Again and again, Peter calls on the believers to not repay evil for evil, to endure their suffering as Christ endured His, and to remember that they have the hope of a better life to come in God’s kingdom.

Peter focuses on this hope at the close of the letter. In the final lines of the letter, he assures the believers that this suffering is only temporary, that it won’t last forever, that it will be over in a little while. He goes on to provide them with more hope and encouragement by reminding them that when this suffering is over, God Himself will comfort, restore, sure up, repair, and strengthen the believers. Peter’s letter to the persecuted believers of Asia Minor closes with the hope of God Himself comforting and repairing them after the struggle is over.

This hopeful message of restoration reverberates with the echoes of other Scripture. Numerous psalms come to mind. We think of the psalm penned by David in which he pours out his heart and soul upon the page, begging God to comfort him amid his trials. In Peter’s words, we hear echoes of Psalm 23:

He restores my strength.

He leads me down the right paths

for the sake of his reputation.

Even when I must walk through the darkest valley,

I fear no danger,

for you are with me;

your rod and your staff reassure me.

You prepare a feast before me

in plain sight of my enemies. (Psalm 23:3-5)

We hear whispers of Psalm 119, where the psalmist pleads with God for Him to restore the grief-stricken author as God promised to do. “My soul melts away for sorrow;

strengthen me according to your word!” (Psalm 119:28) The psalmist knew that God would nourish and restore him after his trials, and he pleaded for God to keep that promise.

Peter’s words mirror those of his contemporary, Paul, who wrote, “but the Lord is faithful, and He will strengthen you and guard you against the evil one,” ( 2 Thessalonians 3:3). In each of these passages and countless others, the believer is continually reassured and reminded that after their suffering is complete, God will restore, repair, strengthen, and nourish them. Whether it be on this side of the grave or the other, God will shepherd the believer in green pastures, will lead them to still waters, and will restore their soul.

Trials and troubles are too many to count in this life. Without the hope we have from Christ, this world is bleak, and its burdens will grind us down. Christ, in His atoning death and defeating the grave through His resurrection, has given us new hope. This hope comes from the prospect of a renewed relationship with God. To those who have faith in Christ, the promise of God’s comfort and restoration never goes void. Place your faith in Christ and allow God’s promise of future restoration to give you strength for the trials ahead.

Artwork, Cover for the Bible, Verve No. 33-34 (Mourlot 117), Marc Chagall

Keep Stretching.

1 Peter, Christian Living, Christianity, Love, Religion

“Above all, maintain an intense love for each other, since love covers a multitude of sins. Be hospitable to one another without complaining.” 1 Peter 4:8-9

In 1 Peter 4, Peter transitions into a discussion of what is one of the believers’ highest obligations–to love for one another. He states that the believers must continue to do this, to continue to love one another and continue to live in a Christ-like manner, for the end of all things–the end of days, the end of time–is approaching. Now, Peter is not telling the believers that the end is near to incite fear or panic, but rather to state a simple fact: that they are living in the last days.

We must understand that the last days began with Christ’s resurrection; from that moment, the clock has been ticking down to the end. We even see that Peter makes mention of this in his famous sermon at Pentecost. There Peter quoted from the prophet Joel and said the following about the arrival of the Holy Spirit that had just occurred:

And it will be in the last days, says God,

that I will pour out My Spirit on all humanity;

then your sons and your daughters will prophesy,

your young men will see visions,

and your old men will dream dreams.

I will even pour out My Spirit

upon My male and female slaves in those days,

and they will prophesy,” (Acts 2:17-18).

Peter understood that the arrival of the Holy Spirit meant one thing: that the last days had finally arrived. As such, believers must be all the more diligent about the work that they have before them; the believers must be disciplined, self-controlled, on watch, sober-minded, clear-headed, and committed to prayer. Given the unique nature of the times, Peter was emploring the believers to finish strong, to see the job through unto the end. Peter also wanted the believers to remember that, above everything else, more important than finishing the job well, is the duty to continue loving one another.

In the Greek, Peter calls upon the believers to keep their love ektenes (ἐκτενής), or “stretched out,” because love covers a multitude of sins. The idea here is that the believers keep stretching their love for one other out,  and to demonstrate forgiveness to one another. We see Paul reflect a similar idea in 1 Corinthians 13 when he wrote 

“Love is patient, love is kind.

Love does not envy,

is not boastful, is not conceited,

 does not act improperly,

is not selfish, is not provoked,

and does not keep a record of wrongs.

 Love finds no joy in unrighteousness

but rejoices in the truth.

 It bears all things, believes all things,

hopes all things, endures all things.

 Love never ends,” (1 Corinthians 13:4-8).

There are several words in Greek for love, and Peter uses in his letter the most familiar word– agape (ἀγάπη). Agape can mean unconditional love, a love that will love you regardless of being loved in return, a non-stoping love, the sort of love that God demonstrates to the world, a sacrificial love. Agape can also be used to mean a deeply devoted, brotherly love. 

Here, Peter is telling the believers to have a non-stoping, unconditional, non-grudge-holding love for their brothers and sisters; that they are to love one another no matter what.

This lesson on love and forgiveness is one that Peter himself received a crash course in, and his words here show us how far this Galilean fisherman grew in his understanding of love and forgiveness. It was this same Peter who asked Christ how many times a brother must be forgiven, who asked if forgiving a brother just seven times would suffice. It was this same Peter who denied Christ three times and cursed His name after Jesus’ arrest. It was this same Peter who sat upon the beach with the resurrected Christ–the very Christ whom he had cursed just three days before–and it was this same Peter who Christ asked three times if Peter loved Him. It was this same Peter who responded three times that he did love Christ, and it was this same Peter whom–out of love– Jesus forgave for his denials, his cursing, and the rest of his sins.

Here, in this letter, we see this same Peter–a man who has grown dramatically in the Spirit–who encouraged his fellow believers to resolve to love one another.

We hear in Peter’s exhortation echoes of Christ’s words at the Passover meal when Christ said to the disciples, “a new command I give you: love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another,” (John 13:34-35). Peter wanted the believers to understand that the love they demonstrate for one another is the most persuasive witness to the world of their commitment to Christ; that love is the hallmark of the believer. The love that Christ commands means believers must look out for each other. Believers must take care of each other. This love requires believers to carry one another’s burdens, and it requires them to use the gifts and talents they all have to serve one another. In everything they do, the believers are to demonstrate their love for God and their love for each other. In doing this, the believers will bring glory and honor to God and Christ

In many ways, what Peter calls on us to do here in chapter 4 might be more challenging than any of the other exhortations he gives in this letter. This call to love is difficult because it forces us to take a look in the mirror. We have to check our resolve; we have to ask if we are really as determined and committed to living like Christ as we ought to be? Are we as committed to loving one another as we are supposed to be? When we start asking ourselves these questions, they open a whole litany of other questions that we must answer. The truth is that we might not like the answers we get when we really start being serious about being followers of Christ and asking ourselves if we are truly living out our faith, or if we are merely going through the motions. This examination is something we must do; it is crucial–it is imperative–that we understand the importance of resolving ourselves to loving one another. Loving one another is a foundational aspect of being a follower of Christ. It is a fundamental practice, and if we cannot do it properly, we will not ever grow in our faith; we will always be hindered, we will be hobbled.

We must ask ourselves if we are resolved to love our fellow believers, our brothers and sisters, unconditionally? Is the love we exhibit to our brothers and sisters eager to forgive and patient and kind and sincere? Or do we keep a record of wrongs and hurts and grudges? Do we only love when it is convenient for us to do so? When it is easy for us to do so? Do we only love when we get something in return? Do we love all our fellow believers or just those who are like us?

We must understand that there may come a time when our church–the people, the community, the family of believers–might be all that we have in this world. With this in mind, we must demonstrate a love for each other that shows our brothers and sisters that we will be there for them through thick and thin, for better or worse, ’til death do us part. 

We must also remember that for a Christian to not love their brothers and sisters is hypocrisy: it shows no thankfulness for the grace and mercy and love of God. It shows a disregard for the commands of Christ, who called upon us to love as we have been loved. For a Christian not to love is a waste. We have the hope of the world, secure and eternal, that can never be taken away from us regardless of what situation in which we find ourselves. This hope was given to us out of God’s unconditional love. We have been given hope and received a love that the world does not have. Out of love, Christ suffered and died so that we can have freedom from slavery to sin and death–how then could we not love? We must remember that we are to resolve ourselves to live like Christ and to love one another.

Resolve yourself to live like Christ. Resolve yourself to love like Christ. Love your brothers and sisters, and keep stretching that love and showing forgiveness, for this is how the world knows we are His disciples.

Artwork: “Love One Another III,” Ivan Guaderrama, 2015. https://fineartamerica.com/featured/love-one-another-iil-ivan-guaderrama.html

Spiritual Milk.

Christianity, Religion

“You have purified your souls by obeying the truth in order to show sincere mutual love. So love one another earnestly from a pure heart. You have been born anew, not from perishable but from imperishable seed, through the living and enduring word of God…So get rid of all evil and all deceit and hypocrisy and envy and all slander. And yearn like newborn infants for pure, spiritual milk, so that by it you may grow up to salvation,” -1 Peter 1:22-23, 2:1-2 New English Translation (NET)

Peter pulls no punches in his letter to the dispersed believers in Asia Minor. Though they were experiencing persecution due to their faith in Christ, Peter encouraged these believers to remain focused on living differently from the world. He urged them to continue living as Christ had called them to live. Throughout this letter, Peter reminds the believers of what Christ suffered in order to bring salvation to them, and as such, they should be ready to suffer for Him when called to do so.

The believers are reminded by Peter that this call to holy living is a required demonstration of their faith. The followers of Christ are commanded to love one another and to show this love, for they have been born anew and given new, pure hearts. This calls to mind the prophetic promises of the Old Testament in which God promised to replace His people’s hearts of stone with hearts of flesh. The giving of a new heart is itself a sign of the Christian’s rebirth; Peter reminds these believers that this rebirth is not from any ordinary seed. This new birth is from the imperishable seed of God’s eternal and enduring word.

A few verses later, Peter gives very straightforward advice about how the believer is to demonstrate both their new heart and holy living. Peter implores the believers to get rid of all “evil and all deceit and hypocrisy and envy and all slander.” There is to be no room in the believer’s new, pure heart for these worldly traits, regardless of who the recipients of these feelings may be. The believer is not to harbor such feelings for non-believers, and especially not for fellow believers.

The believers are to instead “yearn like newborn infants for pure, spiritual milk,” which will aid in their growth as followers of Christ. This call to pursue “spiritual milk” is interesting on a few levels. First, the word that is translated in English as “spiritual” is the Greek work logikos (λογικός), as in “logical.” This word, logikos, is related to a significant Greek word, the word logos (λόγος). Logos is the Greek word for “word.” Despite its seemingly ordinary translation, logos is one of the most important words of the New Testament.  

So, how does this relate to Peter’s call to pursue spiritual milk? Peter made reference to the word (logos) of God in 1:23 when he reminded the believers of their new birth of the imperishable seed of the enduring word of God. He then used a similar and related word, logikos, and uses a little bit of word-play to encourage the believers to yearn for the word of God. It is almost as if he is saying, “yearn for the word of God milk.” This idea fits into the context of the statement: just as a newborn child yearns for milk to grow, the newborn believer is to yearn for the word of God so that they may grow in their faith.

There is, however, a more profound message here. We must remember that the word logos is one of the most important words of the New Testament. Logos is used as a code word for Christ, and it is often used to refer to Christ being the means through which God communicated to humanity. In the same way that humans use words to communicate with each other, God used Jesus to communicate with humanity and to tell the world how it could have a renewed relationship with the Father. Jesus is the literal word of God, and this is best illustrated in the opening verses of John’s gospel account. In John 1:1-4, we read the following, and we know that John is referring to Christ everywhere we used the word “Word”: 

 In the beginning was the Word (logos), and the Word (logos) was with God, and the Word (logos) was God. He (the logos) was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him (the logos), and without him (the logos) was not any thing made that was made. In him (the logos) was life, and the life was the light of men.

With this in mind, let’s look again at Peter’s call to pursue logikos milk. Considering the connection to logos and Jesus, we see that when Peter is telling us to hunger for and be nourished by the word of God, he doesn’t only mean the written word–the Scriptures. He also means for us to hunger and yearn for the real logos itself– to hunger and yearn for Christ. It is then, when we yearn for Christ, and seek to be nourished by Him, and by the Scriptures, we can put away all the fleshly desires and habits of this world. When these desires and habits are put away, we can live just as He called us to live– as His holy people.

Hunger and thirst for Christ; seek the nourishment and growth that only He can give. Pursue Christ above all else, and let Him work in you to remove all the evil and all deceit and hypocrisy and envy and all slander that infests each of us. Let Him give strength to your new, pure heart. Then use that new heart to exhibit His love to all you encounter.

Artwork: “Milk Bottles,” by Ollie Tuck, https://www.saatchiart.com/print/Painting-Milk-Bottles/1088026/4264596/view

Salvation Is His Name.

Christianity, Religion

“And she will have a son, and you are to name him Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins.” Matthew 1:21

Matthew and Luke both record in their respective gospels the narrative of Jesus’ birth. Each account gives a distinct perspective of how Christ’s birth came to be and took place, and each gospel writer gives unique details about the events surrounding Jesus’ birth. For example, in Luke’s account, we are given the familiar story of Gabriel’s visit to Mary, Caesar Agustus’ census, the birth in the stable in Bethlehem, and the appearance of the heavenly host to the shepherds.

While Luke’s account is focused mainly upon Mary, Matthew gives us a version that deals with Joseph’s side of the story. This focus on Joseph is essential because one of Matthew’s intention is to show how Jesus is the promised messiah, or king, from the line of David. To accomplish this, Matthew lists Jesus’ family tree, from Abraham to King David, all the way to Joseph. We learn from this that Joseph is a direct descendant of David, and as such, Jesus would be adopted into the Davidic line.

After connecting Joseph and Jesus to David, Matthew’s attention shifts to the events surrounding Jesus’ birth, specifically with the issue that Mary has become pregnant in the middle of her engagement to Joseph. Jewish engagements of this era were almost as binding as the marriage itself; to break the engagement, one party would have to receive a bill of divorce. Matthew tells us that Mary had conceived her child by the Holy Spirit, but Joseph still found himself in a precarious situation. For Mary to be pregnant with a child that was not Joseph’s during the engagement could have raised accusations of adultery. With that charge, Mary could be put to death, as was the prescribed penalty under the Law of Moses.

Matthew tells us that Joseph was a righteous man and that he did not want to disgrace Mary publically. Joseph did not want to do anything that would endanger Mary; he was prudent. He has a man who followed the Law, but he also cared for Mary and did not want her to be hurt. She was going to have enough difficulty ahead being pregnant and unwed, there was no need to add to her burden. So Joseph decided to handle everything secretly and let everyone go their separate ways.

Though Joseph might have thought he was handling everything, this was not God’s plan. God was still going to use Joseph to be the earthly father of His Son, and Joseph was going to provide Mary’s child with the necessary Davidic lineage. He did not know it yet, but Joseph was going to play a vital role in God’s plan to redeem humanity.

So God sent a messenger to Joseph; an angel came to him in a dream. This angel spoke to Joseph and told this very important descendant of David not to be afraid to marry Mary. This was not just any ordinary child that she was carrying, this was a child that was conceived by the Holy Spirit. In the same way that God created everything in Genesis from nothing, He had created a baby in Mary from nothing. The angel continued to tell Joseph that Mary would have a son and that they must name this son Jesus. The angel then gives a critical detail about why this child must be called Jesus: it is because this child will save the people from their sins.

But what does this mean? What is the connection between the name Jesus and saving the people?

The English name “Jesus” comes from the Greek name Iesous (Ἰησοῦς), which is the Greek translation of the Aramaic name Yeshua (יֵשׁוּעַ). Yeshua is a shortened version of the Hebrew name Joshua, or Yehoshua (יְהוֹשׁוּעַ). In essence, Christ’s first name would be Josh. Both Yeshua and Yehoshua have the same meaning: YHWH is Salvation. So, our first step in understanding why Jesus must be named Yeshua is because that very name means “YHWH is salvation.”

There is a relationship between the name Yeshua and Hebrew words relating to salvation; they call come from the same root. For instance, the term “salvation” is yeshu’ah (יְשׁוּעָה) which sounds nearly identical to the name given to Christ. Likewise, the phrase “he will save” in Hebrew is yasha (יָשַׁע), which is an even more compact form of the name Yeshua. This all helps us to understand that salvation is at the very core of the name being given to Mary’s son. The baby must be named “Salvation,” because He is bringing salvation, and He Himself will do the saving.

This also sheds light on the identity of Jesus. His name, Yeshua, means “YHWH is Salvation,” but according to the angel’s explanation, Jesus is the one who will be doing all the saving; Jesus Himself has become the agent of salvation. Therefore, if Jesus’ name means “YHWH is Salvation,” and if Jesus is the one bringing salvation to the people-brining redemption from sin–then Jesus must be YHWH; He must be God. Proving that Jesus is God is why Matthew includes the quote from Isaiah 7:14– since Jesus is God, He is the fulfillment of the Immanuel prophecy given by Isaiah. Jesus is Immanuel (God with Us) because Jesus is God, and He has come to be with His people.

God spared no attention to detail in His plan to redeem humanity. He sent the world His Son, and that Son was named Salvation because He would save the people from their sins. That baby, who was both fully human and fully God, grew up to be a man who led a perfectly obedient life to God, and that man died so that salvation could be given to the world. Three days later,  Salvation–who is God with Us– rose from the dead, defeating sin and death once and for all.

Place your trust in the one who is both fully God and fully man. His name is Salvation, and there is no other name that you can call upon to be saved.

Artwork: “The Nativity,” from “Derriere le Miroir” Marc Chagall, 1950